The cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena often contaminates the drinking water of rural communities in developing countries and accumulates in mussels, flounder, and cod from the northern Baltic Sea.1,2 Nodularin is a hepatotoxic monocylic pentapeptide produced by the N. spumigena.3 It is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase types 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), exhibiting IC50 values of 1.8 and 0.026 nM, respectively. PP2B is inhibited to a lesser extent with an IC50 of 1.8 µM. No apparent inhibitory effect is observed with PP2C, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, protein kinase A, phosphorylase kinase, or protein kinase C.4
1Sipiä, V.O., Kankaanpää, H.T., Flinkman, J., et al. Time-dependent accumulation of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins in flounders (Platichthys flesus) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the northern Baltic sea. Environ Toxicol16330-336(2001).
2Sipiä, V.O., Kankaanpää, H.T., Lahti, K., et al. Detection of nodularin in flounders and cod from the Baltic Sea. Environ Toxicol16121-126(2001).
3Rinehart, K.L., Harada, K., Namikoshi, M., et al. Nodularin, microcystin, and the configuration of Adda. J Am Chem Soc1108557-8558(1988).
4Honkanen, R.E., Dukelow, M., Zwiller, J., et al. Cyanobacterial nodularin is a potent inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein phosphatases. Mol Pharmacol40577-583(1991).
Cayman Chemical Company regularly evaluates our shipping methods to ensure product stability is maintained and our corporate environmental impact is minimized. Products selected for review are evaluated and shipping methods are certified by our Scientists. While occasionally our method of shipping a product may change, rest assured the shipping conditions on all Cayman Chemical products have been reviewed and validated.
Upon receipt, it is important to check the storage requirements of your products and place them at the appropriate temperature. Products shipped without ice may require frozen storage for long term stability.
Cayman Chemical was formed over thirty years ago by demonstrating the value of naturally growing gorgonian corals as a renewable, economically viable source of prostaglandins. Today we operate our business knowing that we owe our start to the renewable resources our environment had provided. As Cayman Chemical continues to grow we consistently evaluate our business processes to ensure we are operating at the highest environmental standards.
Manufacturer, supplier, and vendor of biochemical reagents, assay kits, forensic chemistry standards, antibodies, and proteins for scientific research
Analytical testing services and custom synthesis also available