Pinolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid found in Korean pine (Pinus orientalis) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) seed oils. Both oils have been found to have lipid-lowering properties. A diet containing maritime pine seed oil (MPSO) lowered HDL and ApoA-I levels in transgenic mice expressing human ApoA-I. MPSO was found to diminish cholesterol efflux in vitro.1 Korean pine seed oil supplements may help in obesity by reduction of appetite. People taking this oil had an increase in the satiety hormones CCK and GLP-1 and a reduced desire to eat.2 The activity of the oil is attributed to pinolenic acid. Due to the non-methylene-interrupted double bond at the Δ5 position, pinolenic acid is not converted to arachidonic acid metabolically. Pinoleic acid can reduce arachidonic acid levels in the phosphatidylinositol fraction of Hep-G2 cells from 15.9% to 7.0%.3 Pinolenic acid methyl ester is a neutral, more lipophilic form of the free acid.
1Asset, G., Leroy, A., Bauge, E., et al. Effects of dietary maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil on high-density lipoprotein levels and in vitro cholesterol efflux in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I. Br J Nutr84353-360(2000).
2Causey, J.L.Korean pine nut fatty acids induce satiety-producing hormone release in overweight human volunteers. The 231st ACS National Meeting(2006 28 March).
3Tamotsu, T., Tatsunori, T., Morishige, J., et al. Non-methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids: Effective substitute for arachidonate of phosphatidylinositol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun264683-688(1999).
5Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester
A solution in ethanol
in continental US; may vary elsewhere
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