Item № 10011296
CAS № 39025-24-6
Purity ≥98%
product image
1 mg $112.00 $0.00
5 mg $504.00 $0.00
10 mg $896.00 $0.00

Pricing updated 2015-11-25. Prices are subject to change without notice.

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Bile acids are essential for solubilization and transport of dietary lipids, are the major products of cholesterol catabolism, and are physiological ligands for farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in lipid metabolism.1 They are also inherently cytotoxic, as physiological imbalance contributes to increased oxidative stress.2,3 Bile acid-controlled signaling pathways are promising novel targets to treat such metabolic diseases as obesity, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Guggulsterone, derived from resin of the guggul tree, is a competitive antagonist of FXR both in vitro and in vivo.4 The cis stereoisomer of guggulsterone, (E)-guggulsterone, decreases chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA)-induced FXR activation with an IC50 value of 15 µM. 5,6 By inhibiting CDCA-induced transactivation of FXR, guggulsterone lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rodents fed a high cholesterol diet.4

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Technical Information
Formal Name pregna-4-17(20)-diene-3,16-dione
CAS Number 39025-24-6
Molecular Formula C21H28O2
Formula Weight 312.5
Purity ≥98%
Formulation A crystalline solid
SMILES O=C1CC[C@@]2(C)C(CC[C@]3([H])[C@]2([H])CC[C@@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])CC(/C4=C\C)=O)=C1
InChI Code 1S/C21H28O2/c1-4-16-19(23)12-18-15-6-5-13-11-14(22)7-9-20(13,2)17(15)8-10-21(16,18)3/h4,11,15,17-18H,5-10,12H2,1-3H3/b16-4+/t15-,17+,18+,20+,21-/m1/s1

WARNING - This product is not for human or veterinary use.

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Storage -20°C
Shipping Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere
Stability 2 years
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References & Background Reading
Product Description References

1. Makishima, M., Okamoto, A.Y., Repa, J.J., et al. Identification of a nuclear receptor for bile acids. Science 284 1362-1365 (1999).

2. Barbier, O., Torra, I.P., Sirvent, A., et al. FXR induces the UGT2B4 enzyme in hepatocytes: A potential mechanism of negative feedback control of FXR activity. Gastroenterology 124 1926-1940 (2003).

3. Tan, K.P., Yang, M., and Ito, S. Activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-2 like) factor 2 by toxic bile acids provokes adaptive defense responses to enhance cell survival at the emergence of oxidative stress. Mol Pharmacol 72(5) 1380-1390 (2007).

4. Urizar, N.L., Liverman, A.B., Dodds, D.T., et al. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an anatagonist ligand for FXR.. Science 296 1703-1706 (2002).

5. Cui, J., Huang, L., Zhao, A., et al. Guggulsterone is a farnesoid X receptor antagonist in coactivator association assays but acts to enhance transcription of bile salt export pump. J Biol Chem 278(12) 10214-10220 (2003).

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