Glucokinase (human pancreatic recombinant)
Cayman Chemical Item Number 10989
ATP:D-Hexose 6-Phosphotransferase GCK; Hexokinase D; Human Hexokinase IV isoform 1
active recombinant C-terminal FLAG-tagged protein expressed in E. coli
Glucokinase (GCK) is an enzyme that catalyses the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to
produce glucose-6-phosphate. This is the first and rate-limiting step in the glycolytic pathway. GCK was initially described in liver but is present in other tissues as well, such as pancreatic B cells, neurons, the pituitary, and endocrine cells of the gut.1 Unlike other members of the hexokinase family
(human hexokinases I-III), GCK has a high S0.5 value for glucose, the concentration giving half maximal activity. The S0.5 value of GCK for glucose is 5-8 mM, which is near the normal fasting blood glucose levels of 3.9-5.5 mM. In contrast, hexokinases I-III have S0.5 values for glucose in the range of 20-130 µM.2 The distribution of GCK-expressing cells and its sensitivity to glucose is believed to play
a central role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Mutations of the glucokinase gene are associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).3 The kinetic defects associated with glucokinase mutations include reduced catalytic activity, increased KM for glucose, and/or increased KM for ATP.4 GCK activity from beta cells of the pancreatic islets is responsible for regulating insulin release while GCK from pancreatic alpha cells controls the release of glucagon.5
Massa, M.L., Gagliardino, J.J., and Francini, F. Liver glucokinase: An overview on the regulatory mechanisms of its activity. Life 63(1) 1-6 (2011).
Mahalingam, B., Cuesta-Munoz, A., Davis, E.A., et al. Structural model of human glucokinase in complex with glucose and ATP. Diabetes 48 1698-1705 (1999).
Tahrani, A.A., Bailey, C.J., Del Prato, S., et al. Management of type 2 diabetes: New and future developements in treatment. New Horizons 6736(11) 60207-60209 (2011).
Gidh-Jain, M., Takeda, J., Xu, L.Z., et al. Glucokinase mutations associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus have decreased enzymatic activity: Implications for structure/function relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 1932-1936 (1993).
Matschinsky, F.M. Regulation of pancreatic b-cell glucokinase. Diabetes 51(Suppl. 3) S394-S404 (2002).
- ATP:D-Hexose 6-Phosphotransferase GCK
- Hexokinase D
- Human Hexokinase IV isoform 1
||50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, containing 50 mM sodium chloride, 0.5 mM DTT, 0.5 mM EDTA, and 10% glycerol
in continental US; may vary elsewhere
InCHI Key generation software
Pricing updated 2014-04-19.
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