BIO is a cell-permeable bis-indolo (indirubin) compound that acts as a highly potent, selective, reversible, and ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3α/β (IC50 = 5 nM). 1,2 Its specificity has been tested against various cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) (IC50s = 83, 300, 320, and 10,000 nM for Cdk5/p25, Cdk2/A, Cdk1/B, and Cdk4/D1, respectively). BIO was also tested for its specificity towards many other commonly studied kinases (IC50 ≥10 µM), including MAP kinases, PKA, PKC isoforms, PKG, CK, and IRTK. 1,2 Inhibition of GSK by BIO has been shown to result in the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway and sustained pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs).3 BIO is reported to maintain self-renewal in human and mouse ESCs as well as induce the differentiation of neonatal cardiomyocytes.4
1Meijer, L., Skaltsounis, A., Magiatis, P., et al. GSK-3-selective inhibitors derived from tyrian purple indirubins. Chem Biol101255-1266(2003).
2Polychronopoulos, P., Magiatis, P., Skaltsounis, A., et al. Structural basis for the synthesis of indirubins as potent and selective inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and cyclin-dependent kinases. J Med Chem47935-946(2004).
3Sato, N., Meijer, L., Skaltsounis, L., et al. Maintenance of pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells through activation of Wnt signaling by a pharmacological GSK-3-specific inhibitor. Nat Med10(1)55-63(2004).
4Tseng, A., Engel, F.B., and Keating, M.T.The GSK-3 inhibitor BIO promotes proliferation in mammalian cardiomyocytes. Chem Biol13957-963(2006).
Cayman Chemical Company regularly evaluates our shipping methods to ensure product stability is maintained and our corporate environmental impact is minimized. Products selected for review are evaluated and shipping methods are certified by our Scientists. While occasionally our method of shipping a product may change, rest assured the shipping conditions on all Cayman Chemical products have been reviewed and validated.
Upon receipt, it is important to check the storage requirements of your products and place them at the appropriate temperature. Products shipped without ice may require frozen storage for long term stability.
Cayman Chemical was formed over thirty years ago by demonstrating the value of naturally growing gorgonian corals as a renewable, economically viable source of prostaglandins. Today we operate our business knowing that we owe our start to the renewable resources our environment had provided. As Cayman Chemical continues to grow we consistently evaluate our business processes to ensure we are operating at the highest environmental standards.
Manufacturer, supplier, and vendor of biochemical reagents, assay kits, forensic chemistry standards, antibodies, and proteins for scientific research
Analytical testing services and custom synthesis also available