Pricing updated 2019-02-23. Prices are subject to change without notice.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients with acute diseases such as pneumonia and vasculitis or chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. It produces several phenazine toxic metabolites, the most predominant of which is a blue pigment, pyocyanin. Pyocyanin, which can reach concentrations of 100 µM in cystic fibrosis patients infected with P. aeruginosa, activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor with a Ki value of 5.4 µM.1 This induces the expression of both detoxifying enzymes, resulting in pyocyanin degradation, and cytokines that facilitate the clearance of bacteria.1 Pyocyanin has been shown to accelerate neutrophil apoptosis in vitro, resulting in resolution of acute inflammation, which is beneficial for bacterial survival. It also induces a 10-fold acceleration of neutrophil apoptosis in vivo.2 Pyocyanin production results in reduced bacterial clearance from the lungs of immunocompromised patients. It has also been reported to induce apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells and to induce premature cellular senescence in mammalian cells.3 Pyocyanin undergoes nonenzymatic reduction by NADPH, which produces hydrogen peroxide and depletes intracellular glutathione levels, causing oxidative stress in susceptible cells.4
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Allen, L., Dockrell, D.H., Pattery, T., et al. Pyocyanin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces neutrophil apoptosis and impairs neutrophil-
Muller, M. Premature cellular senescence induced by pyocyanin, a redox-
4. Muller, M. Pyocyanin induces oxidative stress in human endothelial cells and modulates the glutathione redox cycle Free Radical Biology & Medicine 33(11), 1527-1533 (2002).