Pricing updated 2019-07-23. Prices are subject to change without notice.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a product of the oxidation of TMA by flavin-containing mono-oxygenase 3 in the liver.1 TMAO levels predict risk for atherosclerosis and are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease and obesity.1,2 TMAO levels are decreased in ulcerative colitis.1 TMAO increases atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, suggesting that TMAO can directly induce cardiovascular disease.1 The biosynthesis of TMA is dependent on gut bacteria, providing a link between the biome and cardiovascular disease.1,2
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1. Zhang, L.S., and Davies, S.S. Microbial metabolism of dietary components to bioactive metabolites: opportunities for new therapeutic interventions Genome Med. 8(1), 46 (2016).
Velasquez, M.T., Ramezani, A., Manal, A., et al. Trimethylamine N-